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Microcredit also began here and the offices of the Nobel Prize-winning Grameen Bank [92] and BRAC the largest non-governmental development organisation in the world are based in Dhaka.

More recently, the city's population has also grown with the expansion of city boundaries, a process that added more than a million people to the city in the s.

The literacy rate in Dhaka is also increasing quickly. It was estimated at The literacy rate had gone up to The city population is composed of people from virtually every region of Bangladesh.

The long-standing inhabitants of the old city are known as Dhakaite and have a distinctive dialect and culture.

Dhaka is also home to a large number of Bihari refugees, who are descendants of migrant Muslims from eastern India during and settled down in East Pakistan.

The correct population of Biharis living in the city is ambiguous, but it is estimated that there are at least , Urdu-speakers in all of Bangladesh, mostly residing in old Dhaka and in refugee camps in Dhaka, although official figures estimates only 40, Most residents of Dhaka speak Bengali , the national language.

Many distinctive Bengali dialects and regional languages such as Dhakaiya Kutti , Chittagonian and Sylheti are also spoken by segments of the population.

English is spoken by a large segment of the population, especially for business purposes. Urdu , including Dhakaiya Urdu , is spoken by members of several non-Bengali communities, including the Biharis.

There is also a small Shia sect, and an Ahmadiya community. Smaller segments practice Christianity and Buddhism. As the most populous city of Bangladesh, Dhaka has a vibrant cultural life.

Dhaka's people congregate at the Shaheed Minar and the Jatiyo Smriti Soudho to remember the national heroes of the liberation war. These occasions are observed with public ceremonies and rallies in public grounds.

Many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals and concerts in which citizens from all levels of society participate.

Nabanna is a harvest celebration, usually celebrated with food and dance and music on the 1st day of the month of Agrahayan of the Bengali year.

This event is dedicated to the martyrs who died on 21 February in a demonstration calling for the establishment of Bengali as one of the state languages of former East Pakistan.

The most popular dressing style for women are sarees or salwar kameez , while men usually prefer western clothing to the traditional lungi with Panjabi.

The Jamdani saree of Dhaka is part of its cultural heritage, and originates from the Mughal era. Despite the growing popularity of music groups and rock bands, traditional folk music remains widely popular.

For much of recent history, Dhaka was characterized by roadside markets and small shops that sold a wide variety of goods. Old Dhaka is famous for its Morog Chicken Pulao , which is different from traditional biryani by its use of both turmeric and malai or cream of milk together.

Dhakai Bakarkhani is the traditional food or snack of the people of old Dhaka. It is famous for its quality and taste and it was highly praised by the royal court of the Mughal Empire in Delhi.

Dhaka is home to over buildings built between the 16th and 19th centuries, which form an integral part of Dhaka's cultural heritage.

Dhaka is also the press, media and entertainment center of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Betar is the state-run primary provider of radio services, and broadcasts a variety of programming in Bengali and English.

Radio transmission started in Dhaka on 16 December In recent years many private radio networks , especially FM radio services, have been established in the city such as Radio Foorti FM Bangladesh Television is the state-run broadcasting network that provides a wide variety of programmes in Bengali and English.

It started broadcasting on 25 December It also operates a sister channel BTV World since Sangsad Bangladesh is another government-owned TV channel that broadcasts parliamentary activity of Bangladesh since 25 January The main offices of most publishing houses in Bangladesh are based in Dhaka.

Dhaka has the largest number of schools, colleges and universities of any Bangladeshi city. The education system is divided into five levels: Primary from grades 1 to 6 , Junior from grades 6 to 8 , Secondary from grades 9 to 10 , Higher Secondary from grades 11 to 12 and tertiary.

Many Muslim families send their children to attend part-time courses or even to pursue full-time religious education alongside other subjects, which is imparted in Bengali and Arabic in schools , colleges and madrasas.

There are 52 universities in Dhaka. Dhaka College is the oldest institution for higher education in the city and among the earliest established in British India , founded in Since independence, Dhaka has seen the establishment of numerous public and private colleges and universities that offer undergraduate and graduate degrees as well as a variety of doctoral programmes.

It was established in being the first university in the region. The university has 23 research centers and 70 departments, faculties and institutes.

Alongside public institutes of higher education there are some 45 private universities in Dhaka, most of which are located in the Mohakhali, Gulshan, Banani, Baridhara, Bashundhara, Uttara and Dhanmondi areas of the city.

This is in addition to holding several examinations for professional bodies in the United Kingdom, including the UK medical Royal Colleges and Accountancy.

Cricket and football are the two most popular sports in Dhaka and across the nation. The Mohammedan Sporting Club and Abahani are two of the most famous football and cricket teams, maintaining a fierce rivalry, especially in the Bangladesh Football Premier League.

It gained List A status in —14 season. Dhaka has the distinction of having hosted the first official Test cricket match of the Pakistan cricket team in against India.

It hosted the opening ceremony [] of the Cricket World Cup while the Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium , exclusively used for cricket, hosted 6 matches of the tournament including two quarter-final matches.

Dhaka is the first city to host the games three times. The Bangabandhu National Stadium was the main venue for all three editions. The National Sports Council , responsible for promoting sports activities across the nation, is based in Dhaka.

Dhaka is connected to the other parts of the country through highway and railway links. Highway links to the Indian cities of Kolkata , Agartala , Guwahati and Shillong have been established by the Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation BRTC and private bus companies which also run regular international bus services to those cities from Dhaka.

A longer second elevated expressway from Airport-Ashulia is undergoing feasibility studies. Dhaka suffers some of the worst traffic congestion in the world.

The city lacks an organized public transport system. Cycle rickshaws and auto rickshaws are the main mode of transport within the metro area, with close to , rickshaws running each day: the highest number in any city in the world.

The government has overseen the replacement of two-stroke engine auto rickshaws with "green auto-rickshaws" locally called CNG auto-rickshaw or Baby-taxi , which run on compressed natural gas.

Ride-sharing services like Uber and Pathao as well as scooters and privately owned cars are popular modes of transportation.

Limited numbers of taxis are available. It is planned to raise the total number of taxis to 18, gradually.

The airport has a capacity of handling 15 million passengers annually, [] and is predicted by the Civil Aviation Authority, Bangladesh to be sufficient to meet demand until Kamalapur railway station is the largest and busiest among the railway stations in the city.

Designed by American architect Robert Boughey , the railway station situated in the north-east side of Motijheel was established in the early s and started operation from The state-owned Bangladesh Railway provides suburban and national services with regular express train services connecting Dhaka with major cities of Chittagong , Rajshahi , Khulna , Sylhet and Rangpur.

In , suburban services to Narayanganj and Gazipur cities were upgraded using diesel electric multiple unit trains. The Dhaka Metro Rail feasibility study has been completed.

The first route will start from Uttara, a northern suburb of Dhaka, and extend to Sayedabad, in the southern section of Dhaka.

Construction began on 26 June The Sadarghat River Port on the banks of the Buriganga River serves for the transport of goods and passengers upriver and to other ports in Bangladesh.

Water bus services are available on Buriganga River and Hatirjheel and Gulshan lakes. Water buses of the Buriganga River ferry passengers on Sadarghat to Gabtali route.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the capital city. For the division, see Dhaka division. For the district, see Dhaka district.

For other uses, see Dhaka disambiguation. Not to be confused with Dakar. Capital of Bangladesh. Capital city in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh.

Main articles: History of Dhaka and Timeline of Dhaka. See also: Geography of Bangladesh. Main article: Climate of Dhaka.

See also: Demographics of Bangladesh. Play media. Main article: Culture of Dhaka. See also: Bangladeshi cuisine.

See also: List of tallest buildings in Dhaka. See also: Education in Bangladesh. See also: Dhaka Metro Rail. List of cities and towns in Bangladesh Greater Dhaka Old Dhaka Megacity List of largest cities List of cities proper by population List of metropolitan areas in Asia List of urban agglomerations in Asia List of urban areas by population List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees.

Geography portal Bangladesh portal Asia portal. The Daily Star. National Geographic. Retrieved 6 September Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

Archived from the original PDF on 8 December Retrieved 15 December December Archived from the original PDF on 24 April Retrieved 14 May World Atlas.

Retrieved 27 March Asian Development Bank. World Population Review. Retrieved 18 March Psychology Press. Safiya S Dani, p.

Retrieved 22 February Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 23 April Dhaka: Smiriti Bismiritir Nogori. Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 18 February Megacities: Our Global Urban Future.

BRAC University. May Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. The Daily Star Op-ed. Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution The Caravan.

Archived from the original on 9 September The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 February Information Division, Embassy of Pakistan.

Retrieved 29 June Virtual Bangladesh. Witness to Surrender. Survivors of sex trafficking and those who investigate it in the city share their stories.

MBS is prepared to pursue nuclear weapons if Iran gets them. But could he end up making the kingdom a nuclear pawn? Toggle navigation.

Rohingya women sold as sex slaves in Bangladesh Girls as young as 13 abducted by traffickers as aid agencies raise concerns over the safety of women in refugee camps.

An army general in Thailand and dozens of others were convicted over the case in July. Rohingya Bangladesh Myanmar Asia. Have your say. Give us feedback.

Sign up for our Newsletter. I only felt pain. S he fell pregnant shortly after — but when her husband was killed in an accident at work, her family refused to take her back.

On many occasions, they flee their husbands and fall directly into the hands of the traffickers themselves, but we do hear about girls whose husbands sell them to the brothels directly.

For three days following her arrival at Kandipara, Rupa says she was locked in a room and beaten whenever she tried to leave.

She was fed Oradexon — cow steroids — in a bid to force her body to develop and make her gain weight to look older. C ustomers also pay more for former child brides.

A zharul Islam is the Program Manager of Rights Jessore, an internationally funded Bangladeshi NGO working to counteract child trafficking both across the Bangladesh-India border and within the confines of the country itself.

As a result, Rights Jessore have had to implement measures so that they can surpass local police and go straight to the superintendent or the Home Office — who can then tell the police to cooperate.

They say they are too busy and that they have other priorities than looking for lost little girls. I do feel really helpless. B ack in her room, Rupa lies on her bed and stares at the ceiling.

She has pain in her lower abdomen, and a bottle of half-empty vodka rests on the floor. I like to dream about a better future.

P apiya, 15, has been at Tangail brothel for two years. M y parents died when I was about 12, so my older brothers and sisters decided it was best to marry me off.

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Bangla Caculator is the first calculator of the world that has two languages. All the mathematical operation of this calculator is like the normal calculators only the display is different.

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However, in it was discovered that much of Bangladesh's groundwater the source of drinking water for 97 percent of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population is naturally contaminated with arsenic.

Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency , especially in urban areas where water revenue does not cover operating costs.

An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in Bangladesh's tourist attractions include historical sites and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and wildlife of various species.

Activities for tourists include angling , water skiing , river cruising, hiking, rowing , yachting , and sea bathing.

Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests ,, Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most-populous nation and the most densely-populated large country in the world, ranking 7th in population density even when small countries and city-states are included.

With the promotion of birth control in the s, Bangladesh's growth rate began to slow. Its total fertility rate is now 2.

The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at Bengalis are 98 percent of the population.

The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from to in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people.

Although a peace accord was signed in , the region remains militarised. Bangladesh is home to a significant Ismaili community.

Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh number at around 1 million, making Bangladesh one of the countries with the largest refugee populations in the world.

Dhaka is Bangladesh's capital and largest city and is overseen by two city corporations who manage between them the northern and southern part of the city.

Mayors are elected for five-year terms. Altogether there are urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than The predominant language of Bangladesh is Bengali also known as Bangla.

Bengali is the one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. It is a part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages in South Asia, which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries.

Bengali is written using the Bengali script. In ancient Bengal, Sanskrit was the language of written communication, especially by priests.

During the Islamic period, Sanskrit was replaced by Bengali as the vernacular language. The Sultans of Bengal promoted the production of Bengali literature instead of Sanskrit.

Bengali also received Persian and Arabic loanwords during the Sultanate of Bengal. Under British rule , Bengali was significantly modernised by Europeans.

Modern Standard Bengali emerged as the lingua franca of the region. A heavily Sanskritized version of Bengali was employed by Hindu scholars during the Bengali Renaissance.

Muslim writers such as Kazi Nazrul Islam gave attention to the Persian and Arabic vocabulary of the language. Today, the Bengali language standard is prescribed by the Bangla Academy in Bangladesh.

More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali as their native language. Currently there is a diglossia in which much of the population are able to understand or speak Standard Colloquial Bengali and in their regional dialect, these include the most distinct dialects some consider as separate languages such as Chittagonian or Sylheti.

All subsequent acts, ordinances and laws have been promulgated in Bengali since It is written using the Chakma script. The unique aspect of the language is that it is used by the Chakma people, who are a population with similarities to the people of East Asia, rather than the Indian subcontinent.

The Chakma language is endangered due to its decreasing use in schools and institutions. Other tribal languages include Garo , Manipuri , Kokborok and Rakhine.

Among the Austroasiatic languages , the Santali language is spoken by the Santali tribe. Many of these languages are written in the Bengali script; while there is also some usage of the Latin script.

Urdu has a significant heritage in Bangladesh, in particular Old Dhaka. The language was introduced to Bengal in the 17th-century.

Traders and migrants from North India often spoke the language in Bengal, as did sections of the Bengali upper class. Urdu poets lived in many parts of Bangladesh.

The use of Urdu became controversial during the Bengali Language Movement , when the people of East Bengal resisted attempts to impose Urdu as the main official language.

In modern Bangladesh, the Urdu-speaking community is restricted to the country's Bihari community formerly Stranded Pakistanis ; and some sections of the Old Dhakaiya population.

The constitution grants freedom of religion and officially makes Bangladesh a secular state , while establishing Islam as the "religion of the Republic".

There is also a minority of non-Bengali Muslims. About four percent are non-denominational Muslims. The largest gathering of Muslims in Bangladesh is the apolitical Bishwa Ijtema , held annually by the orthodox Tablighi Jamaat.

The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. The Islamic Foundation is an autonomous government agency responsible for some religious matters under state guidance, including monitoring of sighting of the moon in accordance with the lunar Islamic calendar in order to set festival dates; as well as the charitable tradition of zakat.

Hinduism is followed by 8. Bangladeshi Hindus are the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community in the world, after those in India and Nepal.

The festivals of Durga's Return and Krishna's Birthday are public holidays. Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0.

Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples , while coastal Chittagong is home to a large number of Bengali Buddhists.

Although the Mahayana school of Buddhism was historically prevalent in the region, Bangladeshi Buddhists today adhere to the Theravada school.

Buddha's Birthday is a public holiday. The chief Buddhist priests are based at a monastery in Chittagong. Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0.

Bengali Christians are spread across the country; while there are many Christians among minority ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts southeastern Bangladesh and within the Garo tribe of Mymensingh north-central Bangladesh.

The country also has Protestant, Baptist and Oriental Orthodox churches. Christmas is a public holiday. The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion, but bans religion-based politics.

It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths. Bangladesh has a literacy rate of The country's educational system is three-tiered and heavily subsidised, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary and higher-secondary levels and subsidising many private schools.

In the tertiary-education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 45 state universities [] through the University Grants Commission.

The education system is divided into five levels: primary first to fifth grade , junior secondary sixth to eighth grade , secondary ninth and tenth grade , higher secondary 11th and 12th grade and tertiary.

Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination.

Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher-secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate HSC examination.

Education is primarily in Bengali, but English is commonly taught and used. Many Muslim families send their children to part-time courses or full-time religious education in Bengali and Arabic in madrasas.

Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.

Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: public government-owned and -subsidized , private privately owned universities and international operated and funded by international organisations.

Bangladesh has 46 public, [] private [] and two international universities ; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrolment, and the University of Dhaka established in is the oldest.

University of Chittagong established in is the largest University Campus: Rural, 2, acres 8. Asian University for Women in Chittagong is the preeminent South Asian liberal-arts university for women, representing 14 Asian countries; its faculty hails from notable academic institutions in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East.

The NITER is a specialised public-private partnership institute which provides higher education in textile engineering.

Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Bangladesh's literacy rate rose to 71 percent due to education modernisation and improved funding, with 16, schools and 2, colleges receiving Monthly Pay Order MPO facilities.

According to then education minister Nurul Islam Nahid , 27, madrasas and technical and vocational institutions were enlisted for the facility.

Healthcare facilities in Bangladesh is considered less than adequate, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased significantly.

Formally-trained providers made up only four percent of the total health workforce. The Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing.

A study of 1, households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs loss of earnings because of illness associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers.

Bangladesh's poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. According to a World Bank report, healthcare spending was 3.

Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.

The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region.

In classical antiquity, a notable school of sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty.

Islamic art evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets.

Mughal Bengal 's most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of Jamdani motifs on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage.

Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art buta motifs and Western textile art paisley. The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage.

Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture. The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin.

East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal. The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important center for visual art in the region.

Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture. In recent times, photography as a medium of art has become popular.

Biennial Chobi Mela is considered the largest photography festival in Asia. Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the 8th to 10th century.

Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapadas are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry. Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers.

The Chandidas are the notable lyric poets from the early Medieval Age. Syed Alaol was a noted secular poet and translator from the Arakan region.

The Bengal Renaissance shaped the emergence of modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and science fiction.

Begum Rokeya is regarded as the pioneer feminist writer of Bangladesh. The writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview.

Shamsur Rahman was the poet laureate of Bangladesh for many years. Al Mahmud is considered one of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century.

Ahmed Sofa is regarded as the most important Bangladeshi intellectual in the post-independence era. Humayun Ahmed was a popular writer of modern Bangladeshi magical realism and science fiction.

Although, as of [update] , several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh, its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common.

Bengal has a long history of feminist activism dating back to the 19th century. Begum Rokeya and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani played an important role in emancipating Bengali Muslim women from purdah , prior to the country's division, as well as promoting girls' education.

The first women's magazine, Begum , was published in Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in white collar positions has steadily increased.

The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,year-old heritage. Islamic architecture began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction.

The Sixty Dome Mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh, and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture.

The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced the development of urban housing.

The Kantajew Temple and Dhakeshwari Temple are excellent examples of late medieval Hindu temple architecture.

Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture , based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period. Bengali vernacular architecture is noted for pioneering the bungalow.

Bangladeshi villages consist of thatched roofed houses made of natural materials like mud , straw , wood and bamboo. In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of tin.

Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture. His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country.

Kahn's monumental designs, combining regional red brick aesthetics, his own concrete and marble brutalism and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are regarded as one of the masterpieces of the 20th century.

In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.

Theatre in Bangladesh includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE. The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as classical Indian dances , including the Kathak , Odissi and Manipuri dances.

Most modern Bauls are devoted to Lalon Shah. Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the ektara. Other instruments include the dotara , dhol , flute, and tabla.

Bengali classical music includes Tagore songs and Nazrul Sangeet. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of Indian classical music , which uses instruments like the sitar , tabla, sarod and santoor.

The Nakshi Kantha is a centuries-old embroidery tradition for quilts , said to be indigenous to eastern Bengal i. The sari is the national dress for Bangladeshi women.

Mughal Dhaka was renowned for producing the finest Muslin saris, as well as the famed Dhakai and Jamdani , the weaving of which is listed by UNESCO as one of the masterpieces of humanity's intangible cultural heritage.

The shalwar kameez is also widely worn by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas some women can be seen in western clothing.

The kurta and sherwani are the national dress of Bangladeshi men; the lungi and dhoti are worn by them in informal settings.

Aside from ethnic wear, domestically tailored suits and neckties are customarily worn by the country's men in offices, in schools and at social events.

The retailer Aarong is one of the most successful ethnic wear brands in South Asia. The development of the Bangladesh textile industry, which supplies leading international brands, has promoted the production and retail of modern Western attire locally, with the country now having a number of expanding local brands like Westecs and Yellow.

Bangladesh is the world's second largest garments exporter. Among Bangladesh's fashion designers, Bibi Russell has received international acclaim for her "Fashion for Development" shows.

White rice is the staple of Bangladeshi cuisine, along with many vegetables and lentils. Rice preparations also include Bengali biryanis , pulaos , and khichuris.

Mustard sauce, ghee , sunflower oil and fruit chutneys are widely used in Bangladeshi cooking. Fish is the main source of protein in Bengali cuisine.

The Hilsa is the national fish and immensely popular across Bangladesh. Other kinds of fish eaten include rohu , butterfish , catfish, tilapia and barramundi.

Fish eggs are a gourmet delicacy. Seafood holds an important place in Bengali cuisine, especially lobsters , shrimps and dried fish.

Meat consumption includes chicken, beef, mutton , venison , duck and squab. In Chittagong, Mezban feasts are a popular tradition featuring the serving of hot beef curry.

In Sylhet, the shatkora lemons are used to marinate dishes. In the tribal Hill Tracts, bamboo shoot cooking is prevalent.

Pithas are traditional boiled desserts made with rice or fruits. Halwa is served during religious festivities. Naan , paratha , luchi and bakarkhani are the main local breads.

Milk tea is offered to guests as a gesture of welcome and is the most common hot beverage in the country. Kebabs are widely popular across Bangladesh, particularly seekh kebabs , chicken tikka and shashliks.

Bangladesh shares its culinary heritage with the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal. The two regions have several differences, however.

In Muslim-majority Bangladesh, meat consumption is greater; whereas in Hindu-majority West Bengal, vegetarianism is more prevalent.

The Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, particularly in the United Kingdom. Pahela Baishakh , the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities.

Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pahela Baishakh comes without any pre-existing expectations specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.

Other cultural festivals include Nabonno , and Poush Parbon both of which are Bengali harvest festivals.

The two Eids are celebrated with long streak of public holidays and give the city-dwellers opportunity to celebrate the festivals with their families outside city.

These occasions are celebrated with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events, celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh.

TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs, and many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts that draw the participation of citizens from all levels of Bangladeshi society.

While Kabaddi is the national sport [] Cricket is the most popular sport in the country followed by football. The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in and the following year was granted Test cricket status.

Bangladesh reached the quarter-final of the Cricket World Cup , the semi-final of the ICC Champions Trophy and they reached the final of the Asia Cup 3 times — in , and This was Bangladesh's first World Cup victory.

Women's sports saw significant progress in the s decade in Bangladesh. In the Bangladesh women's national cricket team won the Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup defeating India women's national cricket team in the final.

The National Sports Council regulates 42 sporting federations. Chess is very popular in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has five grandmasters in chess.

Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grandmaster in South Asia. Bangladesh hosts a number of international tournaments.

Bangabandhu Cup is an international football tournament hosted in the country. Bangladesh hosted the South Asian Games several times.

Bangladesh hosted the Asia Cup Cricket Tournament in , , and The Bangladeshi press is diverse, outspoken and privately owned.

Over newspapers are published in the country. Bangladesh Betar is the state-run radio service. Bengali broadcasts from Voice of America are also very popular.

Bangladesh Television BTV is the state-owned television network. There more than 20 privately owned television networks, including several news channels.

Freedom of the media remains a major concern, due to government attempts at censorship and the harassment of journalists. The cinema of Bangladesh dates back to , when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka.

The first bioscope on the subcontinent was established in Dhaka that year. The Dhaka Nawab Family patronised the production of several silent films in the s and 30s.

During the s, 25—30 films were produced annually in Dhaka. By the s, Bangladesh produced 80— films a year. While the Bangladeshi film industry has achieved limited commercial success, the country has produced notable independent filmmakers.

Zahir Raihan was a prominent documentary-maker who was assassinated in The late Tareque Masud is regarded as one of Bangladesh's outstanding directors for his critically acclaimed films on social issues.

Bangladesh have very active film society culture. Now around 40 Film Society active in all over Bangladesh. Federation of Film Societies of Bangladesh is the parent organisation of the film society movement of Bangladesh.

The Varendra Research Museum is the oldest museum in Bangladesh. It houses important collections from both the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, including the sculptures of the Pala-Sena School of Art and the Indus Valley Civilization; as well as Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian manuscripts and inscriptions.

The Ahsan Manzil, the former residence of the Nawab of Dhaka, is a national museum housing collections from the British Raj.

The Tajhat Palace Museum preserves artefacts of the rich cultural heritage of North Bengal, including Hindu-Buddhist sculptures and Islamic manuscripts.

The Mymensingh Museum houses the personal antique collections of Bengali aristocrats in central Bengal. The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong showcases the lifestyle of various tribes in Bangladesh.

The Liberation War Museum documents the Bangladeshi struggle for independence and the genocide. In ancient times, manuscripts were written on palm leaves, tree barks, parchment vellum and terracotta plates and preserved at monasteries known as viharas.

The Hussain Shahi dynasty established royal libraries during the Bengal Sultanate. Libraries were established in each district of Bengal by the zamindar gentry during the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century.

The trend of establishing libraries continued until the beginning of World War II. The Great Bengal Library Association was formed in The National Library of Bangladesh was established in This article is about the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

For other uses, see Bangladesh disambiguation. Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh. Independence from Pakistan. Website bangladesh.

Main article: Names of Bengal. Main articles: History of Bengal and History of Bangladesh. Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbors in ancient South Asia.

Gauda Kingdom , the first independent unified polity in the Bengal region. The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.

The 9th-century ruins of Somapura Mahavihara. The Sultanate of Bengal was the sovereign power of Bengal for much of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.

The 15th-century Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in Bangladesh that was built during the period of the Bengal Sultanate. Lalbagh Fort also Fort Aurangabad is an incomplete 17th-century Mughal fort complex that stands before the Buriganga River in the southwestern part of Dhaka.

The Bengal Presidency at its greatest extent. Map showing the result of the Partition of Bengal Main article: Partition of Bengal Main articles: East Bengal and East Pakistan.

Shaheed Minar , established to commemorate those killed during the Bengali Language Movement demonstrations of in then East Pakistan.

Female students march in defiance of the Section prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early Main article: Bangladesh Liberation War.

Martyred Intellectuals Memorial near Rayerbazar killing field is built in memory of the martyred intellectuals of Liberation War.

Swadhinata Stambha or Independence Monument commemorate the historical events that took place in the Suhrawardy Udyan regarding the Liberation War.

See also: Military coups in Bangladesh. Zia and Ershad were the country's strongmen between — and — respectively.

See also: Bangladeshi political crisis. The rivalry between Hasina and Zia has been dubbed the Battle of the Begums [] [].

Main article: Geography of Bangladesh. Main article: Administrative geography of Bangladesh. Main article: Climate of Bangladesh. Main articles: Wildlife of Bangladesh and Fauna of Bangladesh.

Main article: Politics of Bangladesh. Abdul Hamid , President since Sheikh Hasina , Prime Minister since Main article: Laws in Bangladesh.

Main article: Bangladesh Armed Forces. Main article: Foreign relations of Bangladesh. Main article: Human rights in Bangladesh.

Main article: Corruption in Bangladesh. Main articles: Economy of Bangladesh and List of companies of Bangladesh. Main article: Transport in Bangladesh.

Main articles: Energy in Bangladesh , Natural gas and petroleum in Bangladesh , Telecommunications in Bangladesh , and Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh.

Main article: Science and technology in Bangladesh. See also: Information technology in Bangladesh and Biotechnology and genetic engineering in Bangladesh.

Main article: Tourism in Bangladesh. Main articles: Demographics of Bangladesh and Bengalis. Further information: List of cities and towns in Bangladesh.

Main article: Languages of Bangladesh. Main article: Religion in Bangladesh. Religions in Bangladesh [] Religion Percent Islam.

Main article: Education in Bangladesh. Main article: Health in Bangladesh. Main article: Bangladeshi art. See also: Bangladeshi literature.

Main article: Women in Bangladesh. Main article: Architecture of Bangladesh. See also: Textile arts of Bangladesh and Muslin trade in Bengal. Main articles: Bengali cuisine and Bangladeshi cuisine.

Main articles: Public holidays in Bangladesh and List of festivals in Bangladesh. Main article: Sports in Bangladesh.

Main articles: Media of Bangladesh and Cinema of Bangladesh. Main articles: Museums in Bangladesh and List of libraries in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 21 February In 13 January , the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence.

The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February National Web Portal of Bangladesh.

Archived from the original on 16 February Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 17 May Article 2A. US Department of State. Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 9 November Census — Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 December The Financial Express. Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 3 October United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved 26 March Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 19 June Eyetsemitan; James T.

Gire Greenwood Publishing Group. Essays on Ancient India. Discovery Publishing House. The Islamic World: Past and Present.

Volume 1: Abba — Hist. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 29 August The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 15 July Dil As the center of the muslin trade in Bengal , it was one of the most prosperous cities in the Indian subcontinent.

Medieval Dhaka's glory peaked in the 17th and 18th centuries, when it was home to merchants from across Eurasia. The Mughals decorated the city with well-laid out gardens, tombs, mosques, palaces and forts.

The city was once called the Venice of the East. It became an important administrative and educational center in Eastern Bengal and Assam after It was declared as the legislative capital of Pakistan in In , it became the capital of an independent Bangladesh.

Article 5 of the Constitution of Bangladesh declares Dhaka as the capital of the republic. Dhaka is the financial , commercial and the entertainment capital of Bangladesh.

Dhaka is now one of the most densely industrialized regions in the country. The Dhaka Stock Exchange has over listed companies. The city's culture is known for its cycle-rickshaws, cuisine , art festivals and religious diversity.

The old city is home to around buildings from the Mughal and British periods, including notable structures such as the Bara Katra and Choto Katra caravansaries.

The origins of the name for Dhaka are uncertain. Once dhak trees were very common in the area and the name may have originated from it.

Alternatively, this name may refer to the hidden goddess Dhakeshwari, whose temple is located in the south-western part of the city.

Some references also say it was derived from a Prakrit dialect called Dhaka Bhasa; or Dhakka, used in the Rajtarangini for a watch-station; or it is the same as Davaka, mentioned in the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta as an eastern frontier kingdom.

The word Dhakka means watchtower. Bikrampur and Sonargaon —the earlier strongholds of Bengal rulers were situated nearby.

So Dhaka was most likely used as the watchtower for the fortification purpose. The history of urban settlement in the area of modern-day Dhaka dates to the first millennium.

The Mughal Empire governed the region during the early modern period. Dhaka was proclaimed the capital of Mughal Bengal in Islam Khan Chishti was the first administrator of the city.

The name was dropped soon after the English conquered. The main expansion of the city took place under Mughal governor Shaista Khan.

The city then measured 19 by 13 kilometres Dhaka was the commercial capital of the empire. The Bara Katra was the largest caravansary.

The riverbanks were dotted with tea houses and numerous stately mansions. Bengal was an affluent region in the Mughal era. According to economic historian Indrajit Ray, it was globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding.

With the defeat of the Nawab of Bengal at the Battle of Buxar in , the British East India Company gained the right to collect taxes from the principality of Bengal.

The city formally passed to the control of the British East India Company in and Dhaka got plugged into the imperial mercantile networks of the British Empire.

Dhaka suffered stagnation and decline began during the mid 19th-century. Its muslin industry was destroyed by high colonial taxation, restriction of trade and forced imports of British manufactured textiles.

The city's weavers starved to death during Bengal famines. Dhaka became heavily impoverished. In , an Anglican bishop described Dhaka as a city of magnificent ruins.

It bestowed privileges on the Dhaka Nawab Family, which dominated the city's political and social elite. A modern civic water system was introduced in Horse racing was a favorite pastime for elite residents in the city's Ramna Race Course beside the Dhaka Club.

The Viceroy of India would often dine and entertain with Bengali aristocrats in the city. Automobiles began appearing after the turn of the century.

By the earlyth century, Dhaka projected itself as the standard bearer of Muslim minorities in British India ; as opposed to the heavily Hindu-dominated city of Calcutta.

Bengal was reunited in The Dhaka Medical College was established in It hosted the largest legislature in Pakistan, as East Bengalis compromised the majority of the new state's population.

Dhaka's urban population increased dramatically because of Muslim migration from across Bengal and other parts of the subcontinent.

The airline later evolved into Pakistan International Airlines. The Dhaka Improvement Trust was established in to coordinate the city's development.

The first master plan for the city was drawn up in As early as , there were demands for Dhaka to host the parliament of the federation of Pakistan.

Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah stated that the country's Constituent Assembly should meet in East Bengal due to the region's large population.

The city was declared as the country's legislative capital. Tabler , opened in in Ramna. The East Pakistan Helicopter Service connected Dhaka with other regional cities as part of the largest commercial helicopter network in the world.

Growing political, cultural and economic rifts emerged between the two wings of the country. The Bengali Language Movement reached its peak in The Six point movement in was widely supported by the city's residents.

The city had an influential press with prominent newspapers like the Ittefaq and the Weekly Holiday. During the political and constitutional crisis in , the military junta led by Yahya Khan refused to transfer power to the newly elected National Assembly, causing mass riots, civil disobedience and a movement for self-determination.

The army faced mutinies from the East Pakistan Rifles and the Bengali police. Dhaka was struck with numerous air raids by the Indian Air Force in December.

Dhaka was declared the national capital by the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh in The post-independence period witnessed rapid growth as Dhaka attracted migrant workers from across rural Bangladesh.

The stock exchange and free market were restored in the late s. In the s and s, Dhaka experienced improved economic growth and the emergence of affluent business districts and satellite towns.

But frequent hartals by political parties have greatly hampered the city's economy. In some years, the city experienced a widespread flash flood during the monsoon.

Dhaka is one of the fastest growing megacities in the world. Most of its population are rural migrants, including climate refugees. Congestion is one of the most prominent features of modern Dhaka.

The city lies on the lower reaches of the Ganges Delta and covers a total area of Tropical vegetation and moist soils characterize the land, which is flat and close to sea level.

This leaves Dhaka susceptible to flooding during the monsoon seasons owing to heavy rainfall and cyclones. Under the Köppen climate classification , Dhaka has a tropical savanna climate Köppen Aw.

Coupled with pollution, such erosion of natural habitats threatens to destroy much of the regional biodiversity. As the capital of the People's Republic of Bangladesh , Dhaka is the home to numerous state and diplomatic institutions.

The Bangabhaban is the official residence and workplace of the President of Bangladesh , who is the ceremonial head of state under the constitution.

The Gonobhaban , the official residence of the Prime Minister , is situated on the north side of Parliament. The Prime Minister's Office is located in Tejgaon.

Most ministries of the Government of Bangladesh are housed in the Bangladesh Secretariat. Dhaka hosts 54 resident embassies and high commissions and numerous international organizations.

Most diplomatic missions are located in Gulshan and Baridhara area of the city. Dhaka municipality was founded on 1 August and upgraded to " Metropolitan " status in In , the Dhaka City Corporation was created as a self-governing entity to govern Dhaka.

Under a new act in , an election was held in for the first elected Mayor of Dhaka. The area within city corporations was divided into several wards, which each have an elected commissioner.

In total the city has wards and mohallas. Unlike other megacities around the world, Dhaka is serviced by over two dozen government organizations under different ministries.

Lack of co-ordination among them and centralization of all powers by the Government of Bangladesh, keeps the development and maintenance of the city in a chaotic situation.

The city is home to the country's monetary authority, the Bangladesh Bank , and the largest stock market, the Dhaka Stock Exchange. Tejgaon and Hazaribagh are the major industrial areas.

The city has historically attracted numerous migrant workers. Dhaka has rising congestion and inadequate infrastructure; the national government has recently implemented a policy for rapid urbanization of surrounding areas and beyond by the introduction of a ten-year relief on income tax for new construction of facilities and buildings outside Dhaka.

Almost all large local conglomerates have their corporate offices located in Dhaka. Microcredit also began here and the offices of the Nobel Prize-winning Grameen Bank [92] and BRAC the largest non-governmental development organisation in the world are based in Dhaka.

More recently, the city's population has also grown with the expansion of city boundaries, a process that added more than a million people to the city in the s.

The literacy rate in Dhaka is also increasing quickly. It was estimated at The literacy rate had gone up to The city population is composed of people from virtually every region of Bangladesh.

The long-standing inhabitants of the old city are known as Dhakaite and have a distinctive dialect and culture. Dhaka is also home to a large number of Bihari refugees, who are descendants of migrant Muslims from eastern India during and settled down in East Pakistan.

The correct population of Biharis living in the city is ambiguous, but it is estimated that there are at least , Urdu-speakers in all of Bangladesh, mostly residing in old Dhaka and in refugee camps in Dhaka, although official figures estimates only 40, Most residents of Dhaka speak Bengali , the national language.

Many distinctive Bengali dialects and regional languages such as Dhakaiya Kutti , Chittagonian and Sylheti are also spoken by segments of the population.

English is spoken by a large segment of the population, especially for business purposes. Urdu , including Dhakaiya Urdu , is spoken by members of several non-Bengali communities, including the Biharis.

There is also a small Shia sect, and an Ahmadiya community. Smaller segments practice Christianity and Buddhism. As the most populous city of Bangladesh, Dhaka has a vibrant cultural life.

Dhaka's people congregate at the Shaheed Minar and the Jatiyo Smriti Soudho to remember the national heroes of the liberation war. These occasions are observed with public ceremonies and rallies in public grounds.

Many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals and concerts in which citizens from all levels of society participate. Nabanna is a harvest celebration, usually celebrated with food and dance and music on the 1st day of the month of Agrahayan of the Bengali year.

This event is dedicated to the martyrs who died on 21 February in a demonstration calling for the establishment of Bengali as one of the state languages of former East Pakistan.

The most popular dressing style for women are sarees or salwar kameez , while men usually prefer western clothing to the traditional lungi with Panjabi.

The Jamdani saree of Dhaka is part of its cultural heritage, and originates from the Mughal era. Despite the growing popularity of music groups and rock bands, traditional folk music remains widely popular.

For much of recent history, Dhaka was characterized by roadside markets and small shops that sold a wide variety of goods. Old Dhaka is famous for its Morog Chicken Pulao , which is different from traditional biryani by its use of both turmeric and malai or cream of milk together.

Dhakai Bakarkhani is the traditional food or snack of the people of old Dhaka. It is famous for its quality and taste and it was highly praised by the royal court of the Mughal Empire in Delhi.

Dhaka is home to over buildings built between the 16th and 19th centuries, which form an integral part of Dhaka's cultural heritage.

Dhaka is also the press, media and entertainment center of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Betar is the state-run primary provider of radio services, and broadcasts a variety of programming in Bengali and English.

Radio transmission started in Dhaka on 16 December In recent years many private radio networks , especially FM radio services, have been established in the city such as Radio Foorti FM Bangladesh Television is the state-run broadcasting network that provides a wide variety of programmes in Bengali and English.

It started broadcasting on 25 December It also operates a sister channel BTV World since Sangsad Bangladesh is another government-owned TV channel that broadcasts parliamentary activity of Bangladesh since 25 January The main offices of most publishing houses in Bangladesh are based in Dhaka.

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